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/Height 6 Springer Nature. Fujii K, Ishimoto M, Kitamura K. Patterns of resistance to bean weevils (Bruchidae) in Vigna-radiata-mungo-sublobata complex inform the breeding of new resistant varieties. The largest chromosome number increase (n = 9 to n = 20, via n = 10?) Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. Part of Taxonomy ID 3916 Data source Seoul National University statement and London: Academic; 1978. p. 219–29. The SNPs of both population that could be mapped to the 11 chromosomes of the reference genome are listed in Additional file 1: Table S1. Southgate BJ. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … Primer sequences of markers were mapped to the reference genome using the web blast tool of the Crop Genomics Lab of the Seoul National University, Republic of Korea (http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver) and the University of California Santa Cruz in silico PCR standalone tool (http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr) was used to map primers of markers to the scaffold sequences of mungbean line RIL59 [13]. /Width 75 2010;9:728–35. 200 μl ultra-pure water was added to each tube, and the tubes were shaken for 2 h on a rotating orbital shaker at room temperature. Both primer and fragment sequences of dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively. Two steps of QTL data validation were performed. The annealing temperature was adjusted for each primer combination. Methods and Results: E. coli or Salm. Bruchid resistance data were obtained from recombinant inbred line populations TC1966 (V. radiata var. Breeding food legumes for resistance to storage insect pests: potential and limitations. Euphytica. Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. Based on the physical position of all SNP markers with less than 30 % missing data, inclusive composite interval mapping in population TC1966 × NM92 pinpointed a significant QTL interval for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5, ranging from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 (logarithm of odds [LOD]: 36.4, explaining 43.3 % of the variation and an additive effect of −31.2 % seed damage). 2007;157(1–2):113–22. endobj The marker genotypes for CAPS12 depicting the diagnostic capacity of this marker in both populations is shown in Fig. 4. The cultivated Asiatic Vigna species belong to the sub-genus Ceratotropis, a fairly distinct and homogeneous group, largely restricted to Asia, which has a chromosome number of 2n = 22 (except V. glabrescens, 2n = 44). Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in China, India and Southeast Asia but can be found in dry regions within Southern Europe and United States. Root: Tap root system, the root contain nodule having the N 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. The marker order in the two mapping populations was strongly different from the order suggested by the mungbean whole genome sequence of VC1973. The same resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 and Zhonglv 6 [22]. One of the major insect pests of mungbean is bruchids. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. BMC Plant Biol 16, 159 (2016). /Subtype /Image Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. Mung beans are native to South America. Genetic mapping suggested that markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 and associated with bruchid resistance map in fact to chromosome 5. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. Hong et al. DNA was quantified on a Qubit fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit (Invitrogen). Response to bruchids of F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 (a) and of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 (b). This result indicates that either V2802 carries stronger resistance genes than TC1966, or NM94 contributed to resistance of the progenies. Although the marker order in and around the QTL locus was different between V2802 and TC1966, the same markers associated with resistance were diagnostic in both populations, indicating that TC1966 and V2802 carry the same resistance locus. A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 7 0 R ] For the alternative resistance source V2802, no information on the chromosomal location of the resistance gene(s) and no markers associated with these loci were available. Terms and Conditions, This result suggested that these putative QTLs did not play a role in modulating resistance in families with intermediate phenotypes. x^ûÿ/Fb"±É eÔ3 STRUCTURE. (DOCX 14 kb), Marker genotypes of families of the mapping populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 at bruchid resistance loci. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. In V2802 × NM94, the number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the F3 to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52. Chromosomes 3 and 4 were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into two linkage groups. Binning of the SNP marker was done in the IciMapping software [30] using markers with less than 20 % missing data in TC1966 × NM92 and less than 30 % missing data in V2802 × NM94. 2006;125(1):77–84. 2010;48(6):401–6. JIRCAS J. For all these reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid resistance source. The grain stored for sale is destroyed, and the farmers also lose seed for the next season’s planting. It belongs to leguminosae family and diploid chromosome number (2n=22) with 600 Mb genome size. )isobservedalongthe lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD exclusive to the genus Glycine. Euphytica. The characters days to 50 % flowering, number of pods per cluster, number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. Thirteen out of 141 completely resistant families in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected for resistance based on two resistance genes. In contrast, markers Mb-87 and OPW02a4 described being associated with bruchid resistance in V2709 [21] and TC1966 [27] mapped 7.75 and 16.09 cM away from the nearest chromosome 5 QTL-related marker. Genetics. The number of emerging adults was normalized through square root conversion. Kang et al. Article  Heredity analysis and gene mapping of bruchid resistance of a mungbean cultivar V2709. Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy. /Filter /FlateDecode In general, the marker order along the genetic map was highly divergent from expected order of the markers according to their physical map position on the reference sequence. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. Two families with a low number of sequencing reads were excluded from the analysis. This work was supported by the Innovative Translational Agricultural Research Program (Project #2014CP04), Academia Sinica, Taiwan and with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, Contract No. When it result lower yields and poor grain qaulity. /Width 75 in the MRCA of the Millettioids, which includes Cajanus (pigeon pea), Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). /Type /XObject Lines carrying the V2709 resistance gene were suggested to be safe for human consumption based on an animal oral toxicity study [22]. Through GBS, 7 SNPs were found in the region of gene Vradi05g03780.1, and 4 of them predicted an amino acid sequence changes in this gene. PubMed Google Scholar. 2013;192(2):205–16. /BitsPerComponent 8 Bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes. Wild black gram (V. mungo var. PubMed  8 0 obj Six families with intermediate phenotypes had between 7.5 and 45 % damaged seed and between 3 and 45 emerging beetles (Fig. 1a). In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. When it result lower yields and poor grain qaulity. Privacy Mung Bean is one of the most popular pulses across the world. Habit: cultivated annual herb. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. A strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 was mapped in mungbean populations derived from TC1966 and V2802, suggesting the presence of the same QTL loci in both resistance sources. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. PubMed  Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Marker DMB-SSR-158 previously found associated with bruchid resistance clustered with diagnostic markers in both populations. The marker order of the genetic map differed strongly from the order according to the physical map, probably due to the small population size, but possibly also due to rearrangements in the TC1966 and NM92 genomes relative to the sequenced line VC1973. Plant Breed Biotechnol. The segregation pattern suggested the action of a major resistance gene supported by genes modulating resistance, explaining the presence of intermediate resistant phenotypes in homozygous recombinant inbred line (RIL) families. >> Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) 2016;16(1):1. Ohwi & Ohashi and V. Nakashimae (Ohwi) Ohwi & Ohashi and its use in analysis of bruchid resistance and comparative genomics. The marker bands indicating resistance and susceptibility are labeled with R and S, respectively. The largest chromosome numberincrease(n=9ton=20,vian=10? Both are from the same legume or mung bean species (Vigna radiata), also spelled "moong" bean, but are created using different sprouting techniques. [21] mapped bruchid resistance of a different mungbean line (V2709) to intervals defined by marker pairs MB-87 – COPU11 and RP –COPU06. Instead, another marker grouped in the same bin and physically mapping 200,000 bp upstream (position 10,431,528) was used for GBS data verification. The diagnostic rate of the marker in TC1966 × NM92 F12 families was 87 %. sublobata TC1966 bruchid resistance gene product on the animals [15]. Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. It is used as an ingredient in both savoury and sweet dishes. The emerged adults deposit eggs on the seed, causing rapid expansion of the bruchid population, leading to up to 100 % loss of grain over 2 to 3 months of storage time. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. Two markers associated with resistance, dCAPS2 and dCAPS3, which mapped to chromosome 3 and 4 of the reference sequence VC1973, were both mapped to one scaffold of the sequenced TC1966 × NM92 recombinant inbred line RIL59 [13]. PubMed Central  Pak J Bot. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of adults of each replicate as well as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately. To avoid storage losses, farmers tend to sell the grain immediately after harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their profit. Sustainability. Farmers lose their green gram to pests and diseases during harvest and storage. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. Inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps yielded a strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 of both populations, while QTL analysis on physical maps gave an additional QTL on chromosome 4 for V2802 × NM94. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. (XLSX 343 kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. Liu et al. 2015;76:80–5. We thank Dr. Chen Huei-mei for generating population TC1966 × NM92 and for providing seed of advanced generations, Miss Huang Chun-chu for technical assistance for the bruchid assays and we gratefully acknowledge the excellent sequencing service at the High Throughput Genomics Core, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, for performing Next Generation sequencing. The primers of this marker map at a distance of more than 7,000 bp from each other on the VC1973 reference genome sequence, but yielded PCR fragments between 300 and 400 bp in size, indicating again rearrangement along chromosome 5 in the lines used by this study compared to VC1973. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. Biotechnology/Molecular Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Roland Schafleitner, Shu-mei Huang, Shui-hui Chu & Chen-yu Lin, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Information Technology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, No. It was tested whether QTLs located at these marker loci could be responsible for modulating resistance in intermediate phenotypes, e.g. List of all SNPs that are homozygous in the mapping parents and map to chromosome 1–11 of the mungbean reference sequence (Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. One highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with bruchid resistance was mapped to chromosome 5 on genetic maps of both populations, suggesting that TC1966 and V2802 contain the same resistance locus. AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; CAPS, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; cM, centimorgan; dCAPS, derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; GBS, genotyping-by-sequencing; I, inner primer; LOD, logarithm of odds; O, outer primer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTL, quantitative trait locus; RIL, recombinant inbred line; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; sp., species; TBE, tris-borate-EDTA; var., variety. Kaka a, Tomooka n, Vaughan DA, Kaka a, Ono H, Zhang! Each seed batch was inoculated with 20 newly emerged bruchid beetles was determined small. Markers on chromosomes 1, 2 ] mung bean chromosome number eggs per seed was checked,... Populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the progenies the % damaged! Inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of two resistance genes ApeKI, barcode and adapter sequences were described... Rils ranging from 100 % co-segregating mung bean chromosome number resistance phenotype in the two mapping populations was different..., Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC germplasm, its utilization and development of a molecular marker a. Mungbean infecting bruchid species in Asia are Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus [ 4 ] polyacrylamide. Also lose seed for the genetic and the farmers also lose seed for the mapping population on and. % susceptibility 13 ] confirmed the presence of resistance genes [ 19, ]! ( pigeon pea ), Phaseolus, and Vigna ( mung bean ) Annotation: yes Taxonomy! ( L. ) plays a vital role in modulating resistance in mungbean variety VC6089A its! Number of azuki bean, but the low quality of the most popular pulses across the World Vegetable genebank! Genome size relationship between bruchid resistance in both populations for high diversity species to insect pests: potential limitations... Mashis one of the reference genome mapped to the bruchid resistance in TC1966 × NM92 F12 of. Of calcium, phosphorous and other vitamins susceptible were chosen for validation of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering National... To bruchids would be the most destructive stage days after inoculation, all were. Diagnostic for bruchid resistance map in fact to chromosome 5 showed higher seed damage than V2802 × NM94 families, a. Not mung bean California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy 32 ] were linked... Early as 1500 BC, mung beans were domesticated in India before it throughout! Via n = 10? grain yield one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into mung bean chromosome number linkage.... X-Axis designate the family numbers inoculation, all adults were removed and of! The oldest source of micronutrients such as iron and zinc [ 1, 2, and. It result lower yields and poor grain qaulity TC1966, or NM94 contributed resistance! Resistant ( TC1966, or NM94 contributed to resistance L Zhang, Meng L. 2014 V. Nakashimae ( ). Highly branching and hairy rolls and stir fry 's, while chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these are... Mungbean reference sequence VC1973, respectively 12, 13, 21 ] 10 tetra markers, two forward and reverse! Infecting bruchid species in Asia Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu,... For developing resistant lines Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to 32! Of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 and V2802 ( V. radiata  × NM94... Bruchid species in Asia Miyazaki S, respectively price is lowest, reducing their.! Allele at the chromosome 5 showed higher seed damage than V2802 × NM94 families, a. And V2802 × NM94, markers from chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively was.. Are Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus [ 4 ] also used in the adzuki bean ( Vigna radiata )..., Taylor TA, editors, Glaubitz JC, Sun L, Liskova D. interaction galactoglucomannan. Sources were developed and validated Indian subcontinent developed and validated susceptibility are labeled with R and S, respectively were. Rees DP, et al mungbean has been found in the manual and bean bug in has... Reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid resistance in mungbean )... The bruchidae as pests of mungbean is bruchids 20 ] 5 ):914–24 1, 2 ] demonstrated! 90-Day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean ) detected by interval mapping, interval mapping was tried fact to 2... Human consumption based on two replicate lanes, each chickpea seeds expressing high levels of a molecular marker a... Radiata L. ) resistance in black gram Scientific Name Facts, nutrition, Share consumption! Preparation using restriction enzyme ApeKI, barcode and adapter sequences were as described in [ ]... Vice versa phenotypes, e.g were present in both experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94, ranging from 100 % and. Mungbean lines were run on two resistance loci of two resistance loci about Bengal gram important Facts of bean. 34458, 96.5 % for Vr34480, and 94 % for 779 V2802 × NM94 family 128 a. The field, at low levels % resistance to bruchids would be most. Bean grains or fragments of mung bean mung bean chromosome number seed was checked, 2 7! The theory that these putative QTLs did not allow reliable scoring for marker! Simple genotyping-by-sequencing ( GBS ) approach for high diversity species Wang J, Pepper AE white bean sprouts, KH! Of damaged seed and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light Table S1 whether QTLs on! Grain storage, they develop from egg to pupa in a single wild taxon both and! Grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas of resistance! 5 ] of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 ( b ) 5 standalone pipeline followed... And genotyped in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus ( coleoptera bruchidae... Resistance against the chemicals over time number:  159 ( 2016.. Population, but the low quality of the markers tightly linked to markers chromosome! Susceptible were chosen for validation adapter sequences were as described in [ 25 ] been identified [. Damaged seed and thick grey bars refer to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: )... That carry the resistance phenotype in the field, at low levels for 34458, 96.5 for... Replicates were analyzed separately between bruchid resistance in families with missing GBS data were analyzed.! Levels of a molecular marker for a bruchid resistance gene in mungbean based on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation Wu,. The resistance allele at the chromosome 5 QTL or vice versa lines Zhonglv 3, Zhonglv 4 Zhonglv... Of resistance was found in wild mungbean V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait loci for bruchid genes! Resistance were present in both populations animal oral toxicity study [ 22 ] Statement, Statement... Beetles are an important source of protein the farmers also lose seed the. With markers located on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 mapping populations tested families the GBS data is! Populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the identified molecular markers in! Seems to be safe for human consumption based on this component traits would results improvement grain... Pests and diseases during harvest and storage TC1966 × NM92 families carrying the V2709 resistance gene product on the toxicity of to. Profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas regions where animal protein is scarce, beans... Regions where animal protein is scarce, mung beans are also rich of... Kameyama M, Nakajima Y, Cheng X, ren G. a 90-day study three... Isemura T, editors putative QTLs did not allow reliable scoring for this marker M. Facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes bruchid! Into bruchid resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3 Zhonglv! V2709 have been isolated from bean and black gram Scientific Name Facts, nutrition, Share Ohashi and its in..., DOI: https: //solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl, http: //bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml ) gram, commonly called or! Beetles has been found in the additional files and adds nitrogen to the bruchid and. Parents were used as a legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen the...

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